A titration is a technique used in chemistry to help determine the concentration of a reactant mixed in with an unknown. When done correctly and carefully, a titration will yield very precise results.
1:Obtain the items listed in the "Things You'll Need" section below.
2:Rinse and purge your burette.
3:Clean and rinse all glassware with tap water (DI H2O if available is better), using some detergent if necessary. Be very careful with burettes, as they are very fragile. Always hold them with two hands.
4:Rinse all glassware with distilled water to lower the chances of contamination.
5:Measure out a precise amount of analyte (the reactant mixed in with the unknown).
6:Fill your beaker or Erlenmeyer flask with a small amount of distilled water.
7:Rinse the analyte into your beaker or Erlenmeyer flask, thus making sure all of the analyte is in the beaker.
8:Put a small amount (4-5 drops) of the appropriate color indicator into the beaker.
9:Agitate the beaker's contents by swirling the beaker.
10:Fill the burette with an excess amount of titrant (chemical that reacts with the analyte). The titrant should be in an aqueous form.
11:Clamp the burette carefully to a burette stand. The tip of the burette should not be touching any surfaces.
12:Place the beaker under the burette.
13:Hit the stood burette carefully with your index finger in order to remove bulb gases inside the liquid then record the initial volume of the burette at the meniscus (the lowest part of the dip in the liquid).
14：Turn the stopcock of the burette (valve near the tip) vertical, so that titrant is added to the beaker. Only let a small amount of the titrant out. A color change should occur. Agitate the beaker until the color disappears.
15：Repeat the above step until the color persists slightly (you may barely notice it, so be careful & go extremely slowly).
16：Record the volume of the burette.
17：Add titrant drop by drop as you near the endpoint.
18：Agitate the beaker's contents after every drop.
19：Stop when you've reached endpoint, which is the point when the reactant within the analyte has been completely neutralized. You can tell you've reached the endpoint with a colour change, depending on which indicator you chosen to use.
20：Record your final volume.
21：Add drops of titrant until you pass endpoint. At this point, the beaker's contents should be entirely the color of the color indicator when titrant is added.
22：Clean up by wiping away all standing water.
23：Dispose of the chemicals used in a labeled waste container.
24:Calculate the concentration of the reactant within the analyte using the data gathered.